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Anabatours - There Are Too Many Place To See Anabatours - There Are Too Many Place To See
THERE ARE TOO MANY PLACE TO SEE

SARDIS

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We referenced at about Sardis Guides in the following instution's decuments:

ARCHEOLOGICAL EXPLOROTION OF SARDIS jointly sponsored by the Fogg Art Museum of Harvard, Corneli University, the American Schools of Oriental Research and the Corning Museum of glass.

Sector PN ("Pactolus North )

Anabatours - There Are Too Many Place To See     Buildings from several eras can be seen in this area. The earliest remains date from the first part of the sixth century B.C., from the time of King Croesus (561-547 B.C.) or his father Alyattes (ca. 613-561 B.C.) The low walls (now covered with modern protective cement) to the south and west are the socles (or bases) for walls of fieldstone and unbaked brick. They would have supported both thatched and tiled roofs.In the center of the excavated area was a space devoted to the refining of gold. Small hollows, or cupels, were made in the ground and used as hearths in which to melt down the gold dust panned from the Pactolus stream.The native gold (electrum) was purified further in banks of small furnaces, which have now been protected by concrete roofs.
     The squarish structure in the middle of this area was an altar of Cybele (Kubaba-Kuvav), the supreme. Lydian gocjdess. The lions that one sees on it are modern casts of pieces which once sat on the corners of the original altar, facing east. During a remodelling the lions were piously walled up within the new structure since they were still sacred animals even in disuse.
     In Hellenistic times (330-80 B.C.) and during the early Roman period there seems to have been little activity in this area; but about A.D. 350 an urban villa with splendid mosaics (displayed in the Manisa Museum) and its own small bath was built beside a street officially designated as the Hypaepa Road. In addition, on the other side of the street there was a large church of basilican form with a number of other buildings connected with it. Not much of it can be made out today since, little by little, it fell into disuse after the 7th century A.D. and was eventually replaced by an elegant Middle Byzantine church with five domes. This seems to have been built during the Lascarid domination of the 13th century, when the region enclosed by Manisa, Kemalpaža, and A1ažehir was a powerful part of the Empire of Nicaea. The new church sits directly over the nave of the original building and used some of the original column bases in its interior.
     Later, in the 14th century, this spot became the site for a number of successive villages, predecessors of the present village of Sart Mustafa.

Anabatours - There Are Too Many Place To See

Anabatours - There Are Too Many Place To See

Anabatours - There Are Too Many Place To See

The Temple of Artemis

The Artemis temple at Sardis, though not actually in a Greek city, is one of the seven largest of all Greek temples. It was begun about a generation after the conquest of Alexander and the enormous scale (c. 45.7 x 99.2 m.; cf. the Parthenon, c. 30.9 x 69.5 m.) was clearly meant to rival the three great Ionian temples at Ephesos, Samos and Didyma. It is possible that the funds to start the project may have come from the Seleucid kings, of whose empire Sardis was then an important subcapital.

Anabatours - There Are Too Many Place To See
Perspective reconstruction of intended Roman design, with exterior coloumns still unfluted.

Anabatours - There Are Too Many Place To See
Top: Hellenistic design. Bottom; Roman design

Anabatours - There Are Too Many Place To See
Temple Plan

The three great Ionian temples are all "dipteral , that is with two rows of columns around the celia. As preserved the Artemis temple is a "pseudodipteros , that is, a dipteros with the inner row of columns omitted, hence a "false dipteros. The celia is divided in the middle into two back to back chambers facing east and west. The altar, unusually, is at the west end of the temple and, even more unusually, was probably meant to be physically connected with the temple. The core of this altar is a Lydian limestone structure of the later 5th or 6th centuries B.C. At some time, probably when the temple itself was begun, the altar was enlarged by a casing of sandstone blocks.

Anabatours - There Are Too Many Place To See      In its present form the temple represents a building whose original design has been radically altered in two ways. First, the celia originally had only one chamber facing west (the darker walls on the plan). At some time the west wall, west door, and interior columns were removed and a new west wall, a central dividing wall and the present east door were built producing the unusual back to back chambers. Second, the original design of the exterior colonnade must have been not pseudodipteral but dipteral, like Ephesos, Samos and Didyma; the double row of exterior columns would have been aligned with the interior columns and with the interior dividing walls.

The date and purpose of these alterations is controversial. With regard to the celia subdivision, we know from an inscription of c. 5-1 B.C. that by the late Heilenistic period both Artemis and Zeus Polieus were honored together in the same precinct, possibly in the same temple. Also, when the temple was excavated a colossal head of Zeus was recovered from the celia. Therefore some scholars believe that the celia was subdivided already by c. 200 B.C. in order to give each god his own chamber (although the standard pattern in "shared Greek temples is to place both images in the same chamber). On the other hand, two colossal portrait heads of the Roman emperor Antoninus Pius (A.D. 138-161) and his empress Faustina were also recovered in the celia. And we know that during Antoninus' reign Sardis received "neocoratź honors, that is, the city was charged with maintaining an official temple of the imperial cult. Therefore some scholars believe that the subdivision occurred only at this time in order to adapt the temple to the imperial cult, giving one chamber to Zeus and the emperor and one to Artemis and the empress.

Anabatours - There Are Too Many Place To See
Hellenistic coloumn capital and base Metropolitan Museum of Art, Newyork.

     As to the external colonnade, although all of the columns were erected in Roman times, often reusing Hellenistic capitals, most scholars believe that the pseudodiDteral design dates to c. 200 B.C., the time when the architect Hermogenes, who codified this type of design, was active. However, in Hellenistic pseudodipteral temples, such as Hermogenes' temple at Magnesia on the Maeander, the colonnade creates a broad space that is equal on all four sides. At Sardis the colonnade creates four dramatically contrasting spaces which seem to reflect the Roman, not Hellenistic, heightened sense of interior space: two long galleries on the sides and two almost cubic chambers at each end. The effect can still be clearly felt among the standing columns at the east end.
     Therefore it seems that both alterations were part of a single great renovation project taken in hand c. A.D. 139 with the intention of transforming the existing Hellenistic temple into a temple of the imperial cult. When it was begun c. 200 B.C. the intention was to build an immense Ionic dipteros like Ephesos or Didyma. By c. 220/190 B.C. the celia walls, interior columns and base for thecult statue (still visible) were in place. In the later Hellenistic period, with a decline in Sardis' prosperity, or simply with the loss of Seleucid patronage, construction must have slacked off and none of the exterior columns or their foundations were erected. In the earthquake of A.D. 17 the temple must have been badly damaged or even buried. By A.D. 139 a major renovation project was under way during which the interior was radically altered to accomodate the imperial cult and the exterior colonnade was begun according to a new pseudodipteral design.

     The process of making these alterations during the renovation has left many Visible marks. The central dividing wall is thinner and of poorer construction than the original side walls. The steps at the northwest corner are probably meant only to give temporary access to the building during construction. And the fluted columns on peculiar pedestals seem to have been disassembled and moved bodily from the interior; there are numerous places on their shafts, and on the bases of the four adjacent columns of the interior porch, where masons have trimmed accidental breaks and inserted almost invisible patches.

    Even this project was never finished (see fig. 4). Many of the ornamental column bases, which were meant to have a variety of patterns, are only hail carved. The plinths of most of these columns are still in a rough state but in the middle of each side there is a small smooth place where masons have scribed lines to indicate the finished dimensions.
   In the course of the 4th century A.D. the temple was abandoned and a small Late Antique chapel was built at the southeast corner. Its marble was systematically broken up to provide lime for the mortar and rubble buildings of prosperous 5th and 6th century Sardis. The immediate area became a combination residential district and tomb area.
Anabatours - There Are Too Many Place To See
    By the 9th century the temple was again deeply buried by landslides from the acropolis and eventually only the tops of the two standing columns were visible.
Anabatours - There Are Too Many Place To See     Three interesting inscriptions are carved on the temple. A long one on the north wall of the original pronaos (west porch) publically records the property of a certain Mnesimachos, who had taken a loan from the temple and had to mortgage many of his lands when he was unable to repay it. This inscription i~' to be dated c. 220 B.C. and shows that the cella walls had been built by that time. A short inscription in Lydian appears on one of the two fluted columns (on the apophyge at the bottom of the shaft, almost impossible to see from the ground) and signifies in the terse dedication formula "so-and-so to Artemis that an individual donor underwrote the column's cost. The third inscription appears on the foot of the fourth column from the north in the east colohnade and records that the column was thefirst to be erected ("I am the first to rise. . . ") and was paid for not from public monies but by private subscription. This must be the first column erected during the mid-2nd century renovation project.

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